Square and Multiply

We’ve all done math problems that look like this: 35, 410, or N37. These are known as an exponentiation. And there is a trick to solving these problems with less calculations than simply multiplying the base… Read More »Square and Multiply


Do you do online banking? Do you work from home? Do you use VPNs to access company resources? All these would not be possible without Cryptography. Cryptography is the art of keeping secrets, specifically through… Read More »Cryptography


In Cryptography, the concept of Authentication serves to provide proof that the other side of a communication is indeed who they claim to be, and who you intend for them to be. There are multiple… Read More »Authentication


How can two people in a crowded room derive a secret that only the pair know, without revealing the secret to anyone else that might be listening? That is exactly the scenario the Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange… Read More »Diffie-Hellman


The Problem Before we can describe the solution, we must first adequately describe the problem Anti-Replay is trying to solve. Imagine your local bank branch office.  Imagine someone going to that branch location, and depositing $100… Read More »Anti-Replay

Using Asymmetric Keys

We’ve established how Asymmetric encryption makes use of two mathematically linked keys: One referred to as the Public Key, and the other referred to as the Private Key. We’ve also established that what one key encrypts,… Read More »Using Asymmetric Keys

RSA Example

The RSA algorithm is the most widely used Asymmetric Encryption algorithm deployed to date. The acronym is derived from the last names of the three mathematicians who created it in 1977:  Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir,… Read More »RSA Example