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    CryptoMedDo you do online banking? Do you work from home? Do you use VPNs to access company resources? All these would not be possible without Cryptography.

    Cryptography is the art of keeping secrets, specifically through any form of communication.

    Cryptography has existed for thousands of years, but has become increasingly more important in recent history due to the explosion of the Internet and the need for data privacy and secure online communications.

    But what does “secure communication” even mean? Typically, it refers to (at least) these four concepts:

    • Confidentiality – Assuring only the intended recipients in communication have access to the message.
    • Integrity – Assuring that the message cannot be modified in transit without the other party being made aware.
    • Authentication – Assuring the other party is indeed who they claim to be.
    • Anti-Replay – Assuring the message cannot be maliciously re-transmitted.

    This series focuses on how Cryptography can provide these four services.


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    I directly started reading confidentiality as I was aiming to go from bottom to top, older ones ahead of newer ones, but thankfully I stumbled upon the navigation where all topics are listed in sequence under cryptography.